Developmental Disorder – Unbound Minds Psychological Clinic
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Developmental Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental condition involving persistent challenges with social communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviour. While autism is considered a lifelong disorder, the degree of impairment in functioning because of these challenges varies between individuals with autism.

Autism Spectrum disorder include social, communication, and behavioural challenge. There problems can be mild, severe, or somewhere in between. A diagnosis is based on the level of support needed, so getting an early diagnosis means treatment can begin sooner. 

The list below gives some examples of common type of behaviour in people with ASD

• Making little or inconsistent eye contact
• Appearing not to look at or listen to people who are talking
• Infrequently sharing interest, emotion, or enjoyment of objects or activities
• Not responding or being slow to respond to one’s name or to other verbal bids for attention
• Having an unusual tone of voice that may sound sing-song or flat and robot-like
• Difficulties adjusting behaviour to social situation
• Difficulties sharing in imaginative play or in making friends
• Repeating certain behaviour or having unusual behaviours, such as repeating words or phrases
• Becoming upset by slight changes in a routine and having objects or parts of objects

Learning disabilities

Learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written language, do mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, or direct attention. Although learning disabilities occur in very young children, the disorders are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. 

A learning disability is a neurological disorder. People with learning disabilities may have difficulty reading, writing, spelling, reasoning, recalling and/or organizing information with working memory.

Some specific categories of learning disabilities include:

  • Dyslexia, which causes difficulties with word recognition, spelling, and comprehension
  • Dysgraphia, which results in impaired handwriting, impaired spelling, or both
  • Dyscalculia which affects the ability to learn arithmetic and mathematics

Information-processing disorders are learning disorders related to the ability to use sensory information (obtained through seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, or touching). These problems are not related to an inability to see or hear, but rather the recognition of, response to, and memory of such information.

Intellectual disability

(Intellectual developmental disorder) is characterized by deficits in general mental abilities, such as reasoning, problem solving, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, and learning from experience. The deficit result in impairments of adaptive functioning, such that the individual fail to meet standards of personal independence and social responsibility in one or more aspects of daily life, including communication, social participation, academic or occupational functioning, and personal independence at home or in community settings.  

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairing levels of inattention, disorganization, and/ or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Inattention and disorganization entail inability to stay on task, seeming not to listen, and losing materials, at levels that are inconsistent with age or developmental level   

It is normal for children to have trouble focusing and behaving at one time or another. However, children with ADHD do not just grow out of these behaviours. The symptoms continue, can be severe, and can cause difficulty at school, at home, or friends.

A child with ADHD might:

  • Daydream a lot 
  • Forget or lose things a lot
  • Squirm or fidget 
  • Talk too much
  • Make careless mistakes or take unnecessary risks
  • Have a hard time resisting temptation
  • Have trouble taking turns
  • Have difficulty getting along with others

Down syndrome

Down syndrome is a genetic condition that causes mild to significant physical and developmental problems.

People with Down syndrome (DS) is born with an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are bundles of genes, and your body relies on having just the right number of them. With Down syndrome, this extra chromosome leads to a range of issues that affect you both mentally and physically.

Children and adults with Down Syndrome have distinct facial features. Though not all people with Down syndrome have the same features, same of the more common feature include:

  • Flattened face 
  • Small head
  • Short neck
  • Protruding tongue
  • Upward slanting eye lids 
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Excessive flexibility
  • Relatively short fingers and small hands and feet
  • Shot height  

Cerebral Palsy (CP)

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of neurological disorders that affects how people move and maintain their balance. It is the most common motor disability in childhood. CP is not always preventable. However, it is sometimes the result of medical mistakes made during childbirth. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. Although CP is usually caused by brain damage during childbirth, it is often not diagnosed until the first or second year of a child’s life. This means it can be difficult for new parents to know how their child will be affected as they continue to grow.

Physical Milestone

• Reaches for objects 3-4 months
• Brings hands together – 4 months
• Sits without support 6-7 months
• Crawls – 9 months
• Feeds self with fingers – 9 months
• Hold bottle without an assistance – 12 months
• Walks unassisted – between 10-15 months
• Walks up and down stairs – 24 months

If your child is failing to reach these milestones, it could be indicative of a neurological condition such as cerebral palsy.

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